Cigarettes may be useful for distance runners?!? (or, How to prove anything with a review article) | Obesity Panacea

Even with systematic reviews, which are the highest form of scientific evidence, there is still a lot of room for subjectivity. You can develop a systematic review in a way that makes it more or less likely that you will find a certain outcome, just as you could with an individual study. Not only that, but the review depends on the objectivity of the people screening articles, who could (intentionally or accidentally) systematically include or exclude articles that may have an impact on the review’s ultimate conclusions.  And then of course the authors have to synthesize data and come to conclusions, both of which are mostly subjective activities.

If you are doing actual experiments and making observations or proving theorems, then to a large extent — larger in some sciences than in others — you are constrained by the brute facts. But when writing secondary literature, especially in areas where data is generally fuzzier, it is easy, whether deliberately or not, to write to a bottom line, including findings you like and excluding those you don’t.

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